Children begin learning at a very young age by observing the world around them, and this learning can help them grow into the adults they will become in the future. However, did you know that, as parents raise children, parenting styles play a crucial role in their development? 

Parenting Styles

Each child is unique, as are their parents and their parenting style.1

Parenting Styles refers to the manner in which parents raise their children. This can refer to the parents’ levels of expectations, performance demands, attentiveness to rules, etc.,as well as the style of discipline that the parent’s utilize to enforce their expectations.2

According to Baumrind’s parenting typology, parenting styles are broadly classified into four different categories: authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved.1,3

Question: Assume your child is playing with another child when they start to fight. Your child then punches the other child, causing them to bleed. What would you do?  

This question may have a wide range of possible answers depending on factors like one’s emotional, cultural, economic, and geographical background. The parenting style that one chooses to employ can also be influenced by these factors.1  However, it’s crucial to keep in mind that your child is constantly observing you and learning from you as you handle such situations. These lessons are bound to stick with them for a long time, and they may likely do the same as adults.

Why Parenting Styles Matter When Raising Children? 

Parenting styles, as previously stated, play an important role in a child’s overall well-being. They define nearly everything, including behavior, emotional regulation, learning outcomes, and physical well-being. From this vantage point, let us examine each parenting style individually.1, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 11

Authoritarian Parenting Style

Those with an authoritarian parenting style have high expectations of their children but show little responsiveness. They prioritize control over nurture. They place their emphasis on unwavering obedience, discipline, and accomplishments rather than what the child feels, needs, or aspires to. 

The Impact on Children:

While children raised by authoritarian parents can develop into obedient adults who strive for excellence and always act morally, they may frequently struggle with:8, 10, 11, 12

  • Anxiety
  • Low self-esteem
  • Aggressive behavior
  • Poor social skills
  • Inability to accept failure
  • Stressed relationship with their parents.

Authoritative Parenting Style

An authoritative parent communicates love and warmth to their child, assigns limits and punishes the child for their misbehavior when necessary, and responds appropriately to the child’s needs. An appropriate balance exists between creating expectations for the child and responding to their needs. Do you know that authoritative parenting is the most effective parenting style in the United States of America? 6, 7

The Impact on Children:

While this parenting style calls for a lot of patience and can occasionally be challenging for both parents and children, it can help raise children who are content, successful, and have:6,9,10

  • High self-esteem and confidence
  • Better emotional quotient
  • Excellent social skills
  • Close and secure relationship with their parents

Permissive Parenting Style

A permissive parent tends to be very responsive to their child’s needs but has limited or no expectations of them. They prioritize nurture over control. They impose limited rules on children and are inconsistent in enforcing standards of behavior; they keep their communication open, allowing children to make decisions; and they try to be friends with their children rather than parents. 

The Impact on Children:

Children raised with a permissive parenting style may enjoy a great deal of freedom, which can help boost their self-esteem, inspire them to explore, and express their innate creativity. They share a close relationship with their parents. However, at times, they may struggle with:13, 14

  • A lack of aspiration and poor academic performance
  • Difficulty taking on responsibilities
  • Self-control issues
  • Inability to identify appropriate behavior
  • Poor social relationships

Uninvolved Parenting Style

Uninvolved parents are usually detached from their children, though this is not always intentional. They meet their children’s basic needs but do not have expectations of them or respond to the majority of their needs. In this parenting style, nurture and control are either minimal or nonexistent. 

The Impact on Children:

Children raised in an uninvolved parenting style lack basic but essential needs such as attachment, motivation, and guidance. Some children may develop resilience out of necessity. However, in the majority of cases, this parenting style can be detrimental to the child’s development. These children can frequently struggle with:15, 16, 17

  • Mental health problems like anxiety and depression
  • Low emotional quotient
  • Low self-esteem
  • Poor academic performance
  • Self-control issues
  • Strained social relationships
  • Substance abuse (particularly among adolescents)

Now that you understand the various parenting styles and how important they are when raising children, try to answer the article’s question and reflect on your answer, your parenting style, and the learning you provide for your child.

Disclaimer: The information provided on this site is NOT medical advice and is for informational purposes only. It is not intended to diagnose, provide medical or behavioral advice, treat, prevent, or cure any disease, condition, or behavior. You should consult with a qualified healthcare professional regarding your child’s development to make a medical diagnosis, determine a treatment for a medical condition, or obtain other related advice.

For more topics on parenting, visit BYJU’S FutureSchool Blog

References:

  1. Ulferts Hannah. (2020). Why parenting matters for children in the 21st century. Retrieved September 2, 2022, from https://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=EDU/WKP%282020%2910&docLanguage=En 
  2. Parenting Styles definition | Psychology Glossary | AlleyDog.com. (n.d.). Retrieved September 7, 2022, from https://www.alleydog.com/glossary/definition.php?term=Parenting+Styles 
  3. Sarwar, S. (2016).  Influence of Parenting Style on Children’s Behaviour. 3(2). Retrieved September 2, 2022, from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1161470.pdf
  1. Gralewski, J., & Jankowska, D. M. (2020). Do parenting styles matter? Perceived dimensions of parenting styles, creative abilities and creative self-beliefs in adolescents. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 38, 100709. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.TSC.2020.100709 
  2. Kuppens, S., & Ceulemans, E. (2019). Parenting Styles: A Closer Look at a Well-Known Concept. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 28(1), 168–181. https://doi.org/10.1007/S10826-018-1242-X 
  3. Authoritative parenting is best style for raising confident kids: Child psychologist. (2021). Retrieved September 13, 2022, from https://www.cnbc.com/2021/10/05/child-psychologist-explains-why-authoritative-parenting-is-the-best-style-for-raising-smart-confident-kids.html  
  4. Parenting Styles – Culture and Psychology. (n.d.). Retrieved September 13, 2022, from https://open.maricopa.edu/culturepsychology/chapter/parenting-styles/ 
  5. Parenting Styles. (2017). Retrieved September 13, 2022, from https://www.apa.org/act/resources/fact-sheets/parenting-styles 
  6. What is Authoritative Parenting? Definition and Benefits. (2019). Retrieved September 12, 2022, from https://www.healthline.com/health/parenting/authoritative-parenting#benefits 
  7. Comparing Types of Parenting: Authoritative, Permissive, More. (2019). Retrieved September 12, 2022, from https://www.healthline.com/health/parenting/types-of-parenting#authoritarian 
  8. Types of Parenting Styles and Effects On Children – StatPearls – NCBI Bookshelf. (2022). Retrieved September 13, 2022, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK568743/ 
  9. Authoritarian Parenting: What Is It? (2021). Retrieved September 12, 2022, from https://www.webmd.com/parenting/authoritarian-parenting-what-is-it 
  10. Permissive Parenting – Why Indulgent Parenting Is Bad For Your Child. (2022). Retrieved September 13, 2022, from https://www.parentingforbrain.com/permissive-parenting/ 
  11. The permissive parenting style: Does it ever benefit kids? (2019). Retrieved September 13, 2022, from https://parentingscience.com/permissive-parenting-style/ 
  12. Uninvolved Parenting: Pros and Cons, Effects, Examples, More. (2019). Retrieved September 13, 2022, from https://www.healthline.com/health/parenting/uninvolved-parenting#effects-on-children 
  13. Uninvolved Parenting – Why It’s The Worst Parenting Style. (2022). Retrieved September 13, 2022, from https://www.parentingforbrain.com/uninvolved-parenting/ 
  14. What is Uninvolved Parenting? The Characteristics & Impact on Children. (2021). Retrieved September 13, 2022, from https://www.choosingtherapy.com/uninvolved-parenting/