Most of you have undoubtedly heard of Einstein and Newton, but how many of you are familiar with Claude Shannon?

The concept of information theory was established in 1948 by Claude Shannon’s *“A Mathematical Theory of Communication,”* which is known to be one of the 20th century’s most significant scientific breakthroughs. Shannon’s contributions have had a significant impact on computer science, artificial intelligence, probability, statistics, and the application of information theory to communications technology. Claude Elwood Shannon is regarded as a founding father in electronic communications.^{1,2 }

**So, who is Claude Shannon?**

Engineering, math, and science are three distinct yet related fields. Rarely does one person make a big contribution to all three at once, but Claude Shannon was one of those unique individuals.

Shannon was not quite a household name, has never won the Nobel Prize, or enjoyed the same level of fame as other famous mathematicians. Yet his ground-breaking study on technical and engineering issues over 70 years ago, “*A Mathematical Theory of Communication*,” laid the groundwork for both the computer and telecommunication industries*.* This foundational work simultaneously introduced a mathematical concept for quantifying information and showed how information may be reliably sent through faulty communication routes, such as phone lines or wireless links. The instruments that ushered in the information age were made possible by these ground-breaking discoveries.^{3,4}

Claude Shannon’s work in the 1930s and 1940s helped create the foundation for our digital world, earning him the title “*father of the information age*.”^{3}

Shannon made numerous contributions to technology; let’s take a peek into some of his most significant ones that continue to influence our daily lives here.

**Claude Shannon’s 1937 Master’s Thesis**: The “*most important Master’s Thesis ever written*,” as it is referred as, was authored by Shannon when he was just 21 years old.^{5} In essence, it demonstrated how logic operations might be carried out by circuits, laying the groundwork for all subsequent digital computers. Shannon was uniquely positioned to share this knowledge as he studied logic in college, worked briefly in the phone business, and received math and engineering training.^{4}

**Claude Shannon’s 1948 Information Theory paper:** “*A Mathematical Theory of Communication*” by Claude Shannon, regarded as “*the Magna Carta of the information age*,” started information theory.^{ }^{6} As a result of Shannon’s contributions, there is a field of study that is both a significant branch of math and applied science, with applications in many other areas, such as computer science, engineering, physics, philosophy, linguistics, statistics, cryptology, economics, and biology (especially genetics).^{1,7}

**Claude Shannon’s Work on Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning: **Shannon was enamored with artificial intelligence and made some significant contributions to the field, like developing machines that could learn from and respond to their surroundings. He created a computerized mouse in 1950 that he programmed to navigate mazes. He named it Theseus, and Theseus was one of the earliest tools for learning made by humans. Shannon published a ground-breaking paper in the same year titled “*Programming a Computer for Playing Chess*.”^{7} It served as the basis for the first chess-like game played by a computer, the MANIAC I, one of the earliest electronic computers, against a human in 1956.^{ }^{8,9}

**Claude Shannon’s Unbreakable Code:** During World War II, Shannon worked as a codebreaker and on the encryption for a device that helped Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill securely communicate with one another. In 1945, Shannon published a paper demonstrating uncrackable cryptography’s viability, but it was classified at the time. Shannon set out to rigorously establish the possibility of an unbreakable code. The Vernam cipher is currently the most impenetrable type of encryption known to exist. The Vernam cipher and quantum key distribution provide completely secure encryption because quantum physics ensures the confidentiality of the key, and Shannon’s theorem establishes the infallibility of the encryption algorithm.^{10}

All contemporary digital communications networks now rely on feasible and dependable digital data transmission as a result of his theories. His interdisciplinary work in various fields has been a blessing for generations of scientists, mathematicians, and engineers!

Read the articles listed below to find out more about other notable mathematicians.

The Astounding Brilliance and Greatest Contributions of John von Neumann

What makes Isaac Newton one of the Most Influential Figures in Scientific History?

Who is Al-Khwārizmī, and What Contributions did He Make to the World of Math?

Albert Einstein’s Remarkable Contributions to the World of Mathematics

Archimedes Contributions to the World of Mathematical Physics

You can also visit BYJU’S FutureSchool Blog to read more inspiring articles on math and coding.

**References:**

*Claude Shannon | American engineer | Britannica*. (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2022, from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Claude-Shannon*Claude Shannon: The Father of Information Theory – History of Data Science*. (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2022, from https://www.historyofdatascience.com/claude-shannon/*Claude Shannon, the Father of the Information Age, Turns 1100100 | The New Yorker*. (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2022, from https://www.newyorker.com/tech/annals-of-technology/claude-shannon-the-father-of-the-information-age-turns-1100100*Claude Shannon, the forgotten inventor of the digital age | OpenMind*. (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2022, from https://www.bbvaopenmind.com/en/technology/visionaries/claude-shannon-inventor-of-the-digital-age/*Claude Shannon | Reason and Reflection. (n.d.). Retrieved November 22, 2022, from https://reasonandreflection.wordpress.com/tag/claude-shannon/**(PDF) A Brief Introduction on Shannon’s Information Theory*. (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2022, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/291831205_A_Brief_Introduction_on_Shannon’s_Information_Theory*Claude Shannon – Complete Biography, History and Inventions – History-Computer*. (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2022, from https://history-computer.com/claude-shannon-complete-biography/*The road to artificial intelligence: A case of data over theory | New Scientist*. (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2022, from https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg23230971-200-the-irresistible-rise-of-artificial-intelligence/*How Claude Shannon Helped Kick-start Machine Learning – IEEE Spectrum*. (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2022, from https://spectrum.ieee.org/claude-shannon-information-theory*Claude E. Shannon: Founder of Information Theory – Scientific American*. (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2022, from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/claude-e-shannon-founder/#